Pennsylvania courts are very clear that a police officer may stop an individual based on an observation of a single alleged drug or Narcotic transaction
Illegal Search & Seizure
Pennsylvania does not permit the search of an occupant unless there is reasonable suspicion that he is armed
A protective sweep for police officer safety only requires that law enforcement establish reasonable suspicion, which is a lower form of probable cause.
A police officer who has a substantial amount of experience and training in narcotics enforcement can detain a suspect based on that experience
The fact that a person confesses to a crime, however, doesnt necessarily mean that that the statement was voluntary.
Your constitutional rights only apply in situations where a government agent is conducting the search of you or your belongings.
Students go to school for education and teachers must be able to maintain order. It is for this reason that the law relaxes constitutional protections
A police stop will happen at least once in your driving career, and its important to follow some simple rules which still protect your constitutional rights
To assert those rights, a person must have standing under the 4th Amendment. Standing means that the person has the privilege to assert the right
In many situations, police officers who suspect that a car is carrying or trafficking drugs use K-9 police dogs to help them establish probable cause to search